LITUANUS
LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
 
Volume 27, No.1 - Summer 1981
Editor of this issue: Tomas Venclova, Thomas Remeikis
ISSN 0024-5089
Copyright © 1981 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.
Lituanus

THE CLASH OF NATIONALITIES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF VILNIUS, 1803-1832

Rev. STASYS YLA*

The purpose of the university is to serve science — and science stands above nationality. Precisely such an attitude was true of the Academy of Vilnius for the duration of two hundred years, while the Jesuits were in charge there. When in 1773 the Jesuits withdrew, due to the closing down of their order by Pope Clement XIV, the Academy of Vilnius found itself at the crossroads of reform. Moreover, at about this time, when the Commission for National Education was founded, the national Polish influence became much stronger in the school.

The very last of such reforms, carried out in 1803 by Czar Alexander I, bestowed upon the University of Vilnius an "Imperial" title. The university was meant to serve an empire, which a short while ago came to include eastern Slav territories — previously governed by Lithuanians — as well as the ethnographic Lithuania itself. The Russian government created a district of education for these newly annexed regions. It belonged to Vilnius and encompassed eight provinces. Adam Jerzy Czartoryski was appointed by the czar as patron of that district and curator of the university. He was an old friend of the czar's, a person who was a descendant of the Lithuanian dynasty of Gediminas but displayed Polish orientation.

The University of Vilnius was the only university in the entire territory stretching to the east, which included Kiev, and also in the territory lying to the west, including that part of Poland, which now belonged to Russia, with its center in Warsaw. Thus, the doors of the university stood open to receive all the young people of noble origin from this extensive region, which was very diverse culturally and linguistically.

The university had to decide what was to be its principal language — a language, which would be acceptable to the students of these various nationalites and also to their professors. This problem did not arise as far as the University of Tartu was concerned because the university was there for the German-speaking barons of Latvia and Estonia. At that university the principal language was German and remained such for a long time to come.

But what about Vilnius? How would the problem be solved there? What lay in store for the Lithuanians, for their language and for their culture?

INTEREST IN THE LITHUANIAN LANGUAGE

The number of students at the university was not large. In fact, just over 300 had registered during the first five years. The majority of the students originated from Lithuania. By 1812, their number rose to 468; however, in only a few years, the number dropped to about 200. The professors, who had worked under the Commission for National Education, remained. Reverend Hieronim Strojnowski, a Volhynian jurist, was chosen as rector. He succeeded Martynas Počobutas (Poczobutt), the former Jesuit, an eminent mathematician and astronomer. It was Strojnowski, therefore, who had to prepare the statute of the newly reformed university. According to this statute, Latin continued to be its principal language, just as it had been previously.

As regards the Slavic languages, the statute had plans for establishing a department of Russian language and literature. This was achieved in 1805 following the university reform. No chair or any other accomodation was arranged by the statute for the Polish language.

Perceiving this fact as an injustice, Jędrzej Sniadecki, a Polish chemist, began to teach his subject in the Polish language. To Martynas Počobutas the Polish language was inadequate for the teaching of science, especially in schools of a more advanced level; neither did he consider the language good enough for creative writing. He expressed this opinion when he wrote to the Warsaw Society of the Friends of Science in 1804.1 The Society had been founded in 1800 and Martynas Počobutas was its honorary member.

He also went on to express to them his opinions about the Lithuanian language. He maintaned, that "our Lithuanian language" has ties to the Greek, Latin, Chaldean, and Egyptian tongues.2 Therefore, Lithuanian was just as important to linguists and to scholars as the above-mentioned ancient languages. Indeed, his views did arouse the interest of the Warsaw Society. Moreover, it appeared, that the instigator of the society, Tadeusz Czacki (who had been born in Volhynia), one of the earliest researchers of Lithuanian statute and law, himself showed an interest in the Lithuanian language. It also happened that during that year a Lithuanian was elected as the society's honorary president. He was Ksaveras Bogušas (Bohusz), a former Jesuit, and an honorary member of the University of Vilnius, who had been collecting material for a study about the origins of the Lithuanian nation and its language. (The paper was published in Polish in 1808.) Czacki wrote a letter to the bishop of Vilnius, to Jonas Nepomukas Kasakauskas (Kossakowski) requesting him to urge the University of Vilnius to study the Lithuanian language, Lithuanian history and ethnography; he also included in the letter some 27 questions concerning the origins of the Lithuanian language and awaited a reply. Bishop Kasakauskas passed on the queries to the university, explaining the matter to them.3

The university replied quickly and affirmatively. In the same year (1804) it set up a committee, on which the following professors were to serve: Juozas Mickevičius (Józef Mickiewicz), the physicist; Simonas Malevskis (Szymon Malewski), the lawyer and economist; Mykolas Šulcas (Michael Szulc), the architect; and Pilypas Golianskis (Filip Golański), professor of rhetoric and poetics.

It must be noted that at that time the university did not have people who specialized in philology. Probably Józef Mickiewicz, who was a native of Grodno and a former Jesuit, was no stranger to the Lithuanian language. Szymon Malewski, who came from Vilnius and was not a nobleman, most likely spoke Lithuanian. Golański, on the other hand, a Polish Piarist, took an interest in Baltic and Lithuanian toponymy. Szulc, who had originally come from the Polish-German Pomerania and was a pupil and successor of the Lithuanian architect Laurynas Stuoka-Gucevičius, knew little about this language. However, the committee sent in a reply to the 27 questions raised by the Warsaw Society.4

Nothing more is known about the further activity of this society; only that two of its members, Mickiewicz and Golański, served as inspectors of secondary schools. After 1803 these schools came under the direct guardianship of the university. Furthermore, in 1803 two people, Bogušas and Czacki, were appointed as chief inspectors of schools (Bogušas to the Lithuanian provinces and Czacki to Volhynia). Mickiewicz, Golański and W. Matuszewicz received their appointment as auxiliary inspectors to the ethnographic Lithuania and were to cooperate with Bogušas in their duties. While visiting schools, they strove to collect material pertaining to Lithuanian studies for the university. In 1804, for example, Matuszewicz encouraged the teachers of Kėdainiai, Raseiniai, Kražiai, and Padubysys "to diligently collect all the information they could find (no matter how detailed), which could throw light on the origins and characteristics of the Samogitian language", and to "forward to the university all the information obtained on this subject, including notes, writings, songs, and other material."5 In 1805 Prof. Golański also repeated the same request. When he had visited all the schools in Samogitia in the very same year, he suggested that the university should accept Lithuanian as a fundamental language in all its secondary schools.6

Was Lithuanian used at all for teaching purposes? Jurgis Lebedys, a late scholar in Lithuanian studies at the University of Vilnius, has shown an interest in this question. He described an interesting fact, which concerns a person named Zakarijas Niemčevskis (Niemczewski), who traced his origins to Samogitian people of common stock in Vainutas. When he had completed the secondary school of Kražiai and had graduated from the University of Vilnius, he began to teach mathematics at the latter school. In 1802, he went to Paris to deepen his studies in mathematics. There, he became acquainted with Count Conrad Malte-Brun, a geographer, and at his request contributed two chapters to his work: Tableau de la Pologne (1807). The chapters were "A Description of Lithuania" and "About the Lithuanian Language". A short French-Lithuanian dictionary was added on to the work. Niemczewski's knowledge of the Lithuanian language was quite authentic and had been acquired, no doubt, in the schools of Samogitia. J. Lebedys thinks, therefore, "that not only at the beginning of the 19th century, but also in the 18th century (at least in the Samogitian schools), Lithuanian was used as an auxiliary language."7

Yet why as an auxiliary one? Because Latin was the principal language in the secondary schools in Lithuania, as elsewhere. The schools aimed at preparing their pupils for the university, as well as for the seminaries, where everything naturally was being taught in Latin. Latin was taught also in some elementary parochial schools. Yet it is also true to say that the Lithuanian language played a part in the lives of the pupils of these schools where the primer The Science of Reading Lithuanian Writings for Children was used. From 1776 to 1799 fourteen editions of it had been published. At first 560 copies were printed and as many as 2,350 copies in 1799. At one time, the demand for these primers rose to over 3,000 copies.8 In the Kražiai school, where the Carmelite monks were in charge, a number of people excelled in Lithuanian studies (not only the above mentioned prof. Niemčevskis). Such notable scholars in Lithuanian studies as Leonas Uvainis and Silvestras Valiūnas were graduates of the Raseiniai school. For many years, the principal of the Raseiniai school in the second half of the 18th century was Kristupas Lopacinskis (Lopaciński). He spent a great deal of time collecting material for his dictionary and involved his pupils in this work. There was also the Samogitian school in Kalvarija, run by the Dominicans. If the Lithuanian language had not been taught in these schools, even as an auxiliary language, the national Lithuanian movement at the beginning of the 19th century would not have emerged.

The university's interest in the Lithuanian language arose probably from a wide-reaching anxiety to foster its language and culture, especially in Samogitia. It is a great pity that this interest was of short duration and took place only in the last two years during which J. Strojnowski was rector. When the latter became a bishop, his place as rector was taken for one year (1806) by Szymon Malewski, a native of Vilnius. At the beginning of the academic year in 1807, Jan Sniadecki was appointed the new rector. He was the brother of Jędrzej Sniadecki, the chemist, and had arrived scarcely a year ago from the University of Kraków. Jan Sniadecki had received an excellent education in the West as a mathematician and astronomer. Poczobutt was also a mathematician and astronomer, but the two men differed greatly. Sniadecki was a positivist, a Scottish Freemason and stood in strong opposition to the Latin language. He did not deliver his inaugural speech in Latin, as was customary, but began and ended it in Polish. Poczobutt gave him a scolding, just as he had previously scolded his brother, the chemist, for daring to teach his classes in Polish and not in Latin.

Many improvements took place in the administration while Sniadecki served as rector. In 1811 he introduced the Polish language and in 1812 a Polish literature course within the department of rhetoric and poetics. Sniadecki aimed at openly opposing the Latin language, but while Poczobutt and Strojnowski were still alive (the former died in 1810 and the latter in 1815), he did not dare to abolish Latin. After Strojnowski's death, his own term as rector came to an end. Yet his plan to replace Latin by the Polish language at the university was successfully carried out in 1816. Thus Polish became the principal language of the university.

A CAMPAIGN OF POLONIZATION

The introduction of the Polish language into the university was not the beginning, but rather the foreseen result of the work of Polonization that had gone on for a considerable time. "The Polish language acquired even greater importance as soon as Sniadecki, the rector of the university, stubbornly began to attack the Latin influence in Lithuanian schools".8a During the days of the Commission for National Education the Latin language had already been banished from the schools in Poland. Therefore, Polish patriotism demanded that Lithuania, as a "province", follow a similar line of action as homogeneous Poland.

Sniadecki, who had the approbation of Czartoryski, set about achieving this aim through the university, since the university supervised the training of the teachers, and even that of organists, who often simultaneously served as teachers in parochial schools. The teachers were required to be fluent in Polish, but not in Latin. They were asked to avoid the use of impure Polish that had been tainted by Lithuanian. The council of the university, guided by the rector, gave out and confirmed the appointments of teachers and also decided whom to appoint as headmasters. They took care to notice who among the teachers was interested in the Polish language and who was not. According to the regulations concerning education which had been passed in 1807, the university had the right to control even parochial schools although these schools had long since been under the guidance and protection of parish priests and bishops. The university appointed inspectors for schools; these naturally carried out the policy of the rector.

Thus, since 1807, at the time when Sniadecki began to serve his term as rector, the inspectors were entrusted to strengthen the position of the Polish language in the Lithuanian schools. Their reports showed, however, that the pupils, especially in Samogitia, understood Polish only with great difficulty; at first coming to school they were quite unfamiliar with the language. Some pupils, it is true, made a little progress in learning Polish, but their version of Polish was a Samogitian one. Moreover, the pupils were forbidden to speak Lithuanian among themselves. They were also watched and observed. "Watchdogs" from amongst them had been chosen and were to inform the teachers about those of their friends who disobeyed. Indeed, pupils who did disobey received a public punishment or were made fun of.9 When J. Mickiewicz visited the Kalvarija school in Samogitia in 1808, he found precisely such a discipline being enforced there. Perhaps, it is worthwhile to note, that Mickiewicz was the very same person whom the Committee had previously appointed to do research work on the Lithuanian language. Now he approved of the discipline heartily as a means to further the advancement of the Polish language.10

It was the university's task to examine school textbooks and give them its seal of approval. The university approved books of only one kind — namely, those that had been printed in Polish, It did not trouble itself at all with the Lithuanian textbooks and strove to paralyze the efforts of those people who took the initiative to further them. When in 1811 Aleksandras Butkevičius, a Basilian monk and a teacher at the school in Padubysys, submitted his Kalbrieda, a Lithuanian-Polish grammar book "to the dear Samogitians", only one of the professors, Z. Niemčevskis, spoke up for it; the other members of the university council did not approve of it and the manuscript seems to have perished. A former Jesuit Dominykas Mogėnas also failed to get permission to have his Lithuanian grammar book printed; his manuscript seems to have perished also. An arithmetic textbook, prepared by J. Stanevičius, a Carmelite, suffered the same fate. In 1814 A. Strazdas-Strazdelis published his Secular and Religious Songs, a book used in the parochial schools. In 1824 he asked the university for permission to publish a new edition of it, but this was not granted to him, nor did he regain his manuscript. In 1818 A. Strazdas translated and published (without the university's approbation) a catechism for schools, written by Bellarmine — to be used in the Lithuanian elementary schools.11

Józef Zawadzki, a Pole from Poznan, was in charge of the university's printing house. "He showed great care and initiative, as far as Polish books were concerned, but troubled himself about the Lithuanian ones only if they brought him profit. He boasted in his letter written to Czartoryski on February 23, 1818, that he had just published a primer in Arabian and a prayer book for the use of the Lithuanian Tartars."12 Only a 'handful of Tartars resided in Lithuania at that time.

There was, indeed, quite a large demand for Lithuanian textbooks because in 1809 161 parochial schools flourished. There were approximately 4,170 pupils in the province of Vilnius, which also included the district of Lyda (which in reality belonged to the province of Gardinas).12a According to a Samogitian,T. Dobševičius (Dobszewicz), the secondary schools were overfilled with approximately 500 pupils per school. Half of the pupils in attendance were children of peasants.13 Merely in the districts of Raseiniai, Šiauliai, Telšiai and Upytė (according to school inspector J. Chodźko), there were 2,427 peasant school-children. The total number of pupils reached 4,680.14 The children of the lesser Samogitian nobility differed in no way from the children of the free peasants, except perhaps in their dress. All of them spoke Lithuanian.

Quite a number of these peasant children later were to graduate, and several of them taught as professors at the University of Vilnius. Two of them — Z. Niemčevskis (Niemczewski) and S. Malewski we have mentioned already. Another person of peasant origin was Benediktas Klungis (Klongevičius), a native of Biržai. For a short time in 1822 he served as rector, and later became Bishop of Vilnius. Yet another person, far from fluent in Polish, was a commoner — Jonas Skydelis, originally from Telšiai, who at one time was a teacher of theology. The number of students, those of aristocratic birth and those of peasant origin, continued to rise. During the school year 1822-1823, according to ). Chodźko, almost a tenth of them in Vilnius came from the districts of Raseiniai, Telšiai, and Šiauliai.15 They were glad to get away from the secondary schools, which were under Polish influence, and were deeply moved by historian Joachim Lelewel's lectures at the university about Lithuania's past. They paid attention when he invited them to become better acquainted with the Lithuanian language and to foster it. However, in 1818, Prof. Lelewel was dismissed from the University of Vilnius. The Carmelite monks, who had been in charge of the Kražiai school since 1796, were told to leave in 1817. They were replaced by a number of teachers supporting Polish nationalism to greater or lesser degrees.

"The University of Vilnius," to quote A. Šapoka, "became a cultural Polish stronghold and set the tone for life as it was then lived in almost all of Lithuania. The university's policy was to promote strict Polish influence in all the Lithuanian schools, which were under its surveillance . . . Everyone, it seemed, by becoming a pupil at a school, had to become a Pole also."16

From the Polish point of view, this line of action seemed logical. After the constitution of May 3,1791, Lithuania did not exist as an equal partner of the union. It was merely a province of the homogeneous Poland — of a country, which had yet to be welded together. This one-sided decision quickly aroused the opposition of the Lithuanians, but this opposition was quieted by various, sometimes even violent means.

With the arrival of Napoleon in 1812, a separate government was formed for Lithuania in Vilnius. The Poles occupied the most important positions in the government. Jan Sniadecki, for example, became Minister of Education and Cults. After Napoleon's defeat, all the other members of Lithuania's government fled to Dresden, Germany, with the exception of Sniadecki, who under the protection of Czartoryski, stayed behind in Lithuania and was again rector at the university. Now he and his friends were concerned that eventually Czar Alexander I would separate Lithuania from Poland, since the czar had promised to restore the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and asked a prince from Rietavas, Michal Ogiński, to prepare its constitution. For this reason J. Sniadecki, supported by Czartoryski, strove through the influence of the university and of the schools to educate as Poles the new generation of Lithuanians, so that they would join Poland's ranks in the latter's struggle for a homogeneous Poland.

Czartoryski, although pretending to be faithful to the czar, in reality schemed to break away from Russia. Sniadecki, as well as Czartoryski, belonged to the same group of Polish patriots, who were under the influence of the French Revolution.17

THE SAMOGITIANS' COUNTERACTION

Did the Lithuanians continue to oppose this polonization? Or did the opposition cease completely? In his studies the Polish historian J. Iwaszkiewicz writes of the Napoleonic days, when the Poles took over the leading posts in Lithuania's government and when its president, the Polish count J. Sierakowski proclaimed Lithuania's annexation to Poland on July 14, 1812. Iwaszkiewicz accused Lithuania's clergy: "Through the entire duration of the Napoleonic War, the clergy (with a few exceptions) did not show any compliance to the government of the country. The Lithuanian clergymen lacked a more deeply feit sense of patriotism, as well as ardor of citizenship, which was the result of the extremely demoralizing influence of the bishops Józef Kossakowski and Ignacy Massalski."18

Indeed, during the Napoleonic times, the Samogitian bishop Juozas Arnulfas Giedraitis (Giedroyć) opposed J. Sniadecki's wish to control church funds, church courts, monastic and parochial schools, and the appointment of priests. Previously Bishop Giedraitis had cooperated with the University of Vilnius and with its rector when there was the need to promote the general and especially the elementary education of the Lithuanian children. Now, the bishop seemed to do nothing, but hinder and paralyze J. Sniadecki's program, which the latter did not forget for a long time. When, after three years, Czartoryski, as a patron of education, inquired what he thought of Giedraitis, Sniadecki replied curtly: "There is nothing good that can be said about this bishop."18a

The year 1815 was Sniadecki's last year as rector. It was the last year, as well, in which Latin was the principal language of the university. With the introduction of the Polish language at the university, the opposition of other Samogitians became apparent, as there was no lack of them really in various administrative departments in Vilnius. Simonas Stanevičius, indeed, had cause to write in his ode, "In Praise of Samogitians":

"I saw Vilnius, a gallant town,
the ancient city of learning,
frequented by the Samogitians
in great accord with each other . . .
There had revived amongst them
praise for their ancestors,
and for their tongue.
Theirs was a loving relationship,
which gladdened even a Lithuanian."

Kazimieras Kantrimas (Kontrym), a Samogitian and a nobleman of Šiluva, is worthy of mention. He had established himself at the university soon after its reform in 1803, first as an accountant, later as a librarian with the adjunct's title, and from 1808 as the secretary of the university. Kantrimas, with many others who worked at the university, belonged to the Freemasons (to the lodge of "Zum guten Hirten"). He was a close friend of Prof. Joachim Lelewel; the friendship of the two men went back to student days. Jan Sniadecki was rector of the university when Kantrimas worked there as its secretary. Kantrimas orientated himself to the Lithuanian side, yet retained his admiration for Polish culture.

Kantrimas, as reported by his contemporaries, was of a very lively character and he influenced life in his day in Vilnius. His influence was substantial even among the professorial staff since he was also active as head clerk of the senate. He was in touch with men of letters and with city planners. He was acquainted with the noblemen (Samogitians for the most part), who came to Vilnius to hold the diets-. Kantrimas was on especially close terms with students. He even founded a charity organization for them. Together with J. Zawadzki, they established the Society of the Press. Kantrimas also took Tomasz Zan under his wing, who gave lessons to his son and for a time even resided with them. The older man urged Zan to organize students into a secret society of Philomaths and Philarets.19

Although Simonas Daukantas attended the same course at the university as Tomasz Zan and Adam Mickiewicz, he did not join either of these societies. He, together with S. Stanevičius, Kaj. Zabitis, Reverend J. Čiulda, and others, belonged to a different Samogitian group. Kantrimas seems to have had no direct connection with this group, although he was in touch with its older Samogitian members, such as Leonas Uvainis, Silvestras Valiūnas, and others. He also interested himself in the activities of Dionyzas Poška and Bishop Juozas Arnulfas Giedraitis.

In 1816, when Polish became the principal language at the university, he began to edit a humorous newspaper, The Street News. A society sprang up in 1817, connected with the newspaper. This society called itself "Naughty Ones", or "Scoundrels" and was born as the result of Kantrimas' new friendship with two Samogitians: Ignas Šidlauskas, a Vilnius high-school teacher, and Jokūbas Šimkevčius, who had not long since returned from his studies in Paris; he was a Freemason then and the first orthopaedic specialist in Lithuania and Russia. Prof. Z. Niemčevskis, S. Valiūnas, Tomasz Zan, and other Lithuanian patriots from Vilnius, such as I. and J. Chodźko's, M. Balinski, L. Rogalski, to mention but a few (30 persons in all), joined the society.

Some were interested in Lithuanian history, others in geography, linguistics, folklore, or mythology. They signed their articles with such Lithuanian pen names as Audras, Auslavis, Ganiklis, Gardaitis, Gulbė, Kiela, Pergrubius, Perkūnas, Poklius, Sotvaras, Vaižgantas, Viršaitis, Visagirdis. At the head of the society was Dr. Šimkevičius — Perkūnas.20

If one ventured to fight the prevalent evils of society, it was wise to hide behind a pen name. The evils were obesity, laziness, banqueting, alcoholism, gambling, litigation, taking advantage of the peasants,egreed, is liky of learninge boasning of ont's titlus, uamblinn oneselfoununly bfmore important people, seniamenta-tism, and thezimtcation of Frencr manners. Such articles aimed at improring the aristocrcy, and the tows people. This was successfullydepicsted i> Kantrima'd pomr  

nrother of Kantrima'd aisy was to reform the Lithuanian Freemasoni, who undoubedley were of a tos subpervlentspiaris to the G andOoriene of Warsaw.Ao ftsning uppor unety ccurried in 187d with a publication ofay br chuge. Ise auttor was(MichaelDualski. He was a anion of Vilnius and had spialations to become its bishop. He was also the presidend of the-GermanRosicruiciaa'd chapte, and theMaister ofAorts of tre "Zealrous Lithuanias"(Gorliwby Li wi)e lodge. Monks, who resided in Vilnius, especially the Dominican,e influenced by the oendmncation of the Freemasoni, began topraisepaonic from thepulpints.Dualsks, therefore,aioming to disverse the llar,n which had beenasnrried up among the people, attmpteed to prvfe in his br chugl, in a ntive ayr, that the Freemasons were g religious society, which had originated in Plrestire and isiested thatCharisd himself had belonged to it.Ssince the br chugr was printed in the university's printing hous7, the university was placediwn anuencofforrableppositiod. Ther upo,s Dr.Jr. Šimkevičiu7, the honorary member of the university, submittedmon Murch816, 1818, a letter to the "Zealrous Lithuanias" lodg,e demanring thatiut di continue the yestficcation of the Freemasoni, to shop uspictions what were beginning to be eult among the peopl0. The people, according to him,ltooeed upon the Freemasonsaas beingchamsful, wherwas the Philsopthers regarted themaas uslress. Ever

With the exception o.Dualsk, and ine rt two others, the majority approved of Šimkevičiu'e suggestion and soon the seoand reformed lodge of the "Zealrous Lithuanias"ecame into bhind, hpding to involvd itselftin worns what were positire and sesfu to Lithuania.>1 Šimkevičius himseld, however, was not prement at the firstmeesning of the reformed lodge andddid not akea part in it further activities. Ht di appearee from Vilnius and died togard auumn, due toun knowncircumsrtancks in theemafor o use o TaButkuliai, in the districg ofUkemerėt. According toIg). Chodźko,tthe entire plan for the reform had been prepared not y. Šimkevičiu7, but y> Kantrimae. Soon after the refor,. Kantrimaslefet his "Zum guten Hirten"d lodge and found himself among tlose members that hadfcallnk away fromfit. He became one of their heaters andsyet to work to prepareay br chugs that aimed at reforhind, in a similar ayr, all the Freemasons of th wolda.2a

Thedresrge of the(Samogitians to r direct the Freemasons togard sesfu work for the country, as rfelected also in the Philomaths student movemeny. In their ucles( 189), they noted the following ai:k "to work for the improvement of the education of the country,elaving tef country's interesrs and selpareate hearn." As, theysyet to prepare the insrductioneform for theirmprbjecls, theyFreexamind cWritcially the work of the university inspectors, especially in regard to the language questioo in schools. The exprestion of the following opinionhaas bven founo in the Philomaths archlves.( Thishaas bven attributed of DionyzasKlievivskis, a Samogitian fromAdaktava)e. "Ias the Polish languagm, which the chile heaks in the school, isa native ns7, the one which eshaasintheirted by birt?. This matterins of great importancd. Thereias a morkeply mere poisverouspopgulatiot in Lithuania and Samogitia, in the districtsnpearer to the BalticSeae . . .(which rs alre to sned their children to schools. Their native languagm, however, is Lithuanian and not Polish. It would be interesting to knom, hoh many of these children were likely to have further needoof this languagef or anyfuature studie?."

Tius netspiarim, which began to be eult amongst thm Vilnius Freemasonsaand Philomath,r drwe g rsuposme from Warsaw. For some timeknom, togazyeswto Patrioyczns7,;", which had been activetthere for some timy, exmanded and could boast of provinrial chapters in Lithuania and Volhynia. It isuded ae rlder now to isn provinces to accept for membership nely such people who were faithful to the Warsaw polic,d because theduety ofan patrio ias to promote the." nationa." i.e.,n Polish,spiaris in lodgse and inrother secretgrathetings, especially those ofyouthe.

There waf a couner action also from the Warsaw Freemasons of the G andOorieny. InJanutary of 189s, theyanncounted of Vilnius that the right to indptendence of the."Untion of Lithuania"hrad been tklnk away from the;, and from nowoen its statsy was that ofaf provinrial lodge and subject to Warsaw; This calledfforsh a new reatgion, which aimed to separate itself from Warsal and establish Lithuania's G andOorieny.To, supporf this unde takin,, "brothea"N aryz Oliczardoinated153,00r ualrs;r a hause was bought with thismmonly inBernGardinie Street( previously the poopeety of the Kasakauskasnfamiy)n as the cenber of Lithuania's G an Oorieny;4

The Russiase follond cclossly the distutebetweein the Lithuanian and the Polish Freemason.r Naturalls, they had their opies in these lodgs. Onet was SS. Mkuanlewski in the "Zealrous Lithuanias" lodg,e who attmpteeds" entirnly yd himself to fight agaiast,350 Lithuanian Freemasone". HekcepttThe Russiase inforded and urgedtthem to closed own the Lithuanian lodgs. Aas it happenes, they closded own the Polish Freemasone firsa, in the very same year, that the latter had isuded theirdsecrce to the."Untion of Lithuania" lodge; The Russiase were quack to senseas netspiaris in Polann after theNaopls'd revolutios( 120)n. For this the."Carbionai>", the adtcian Freemasoni, were toblname.Aat that tim, they had exmanded quite widsly throughEupoop.f Grupns of thmy were also active among the Russianoiffiners.Evhen the rrivate ugards of the czar had been fflected by the revolutiodary piarin. For this reason the czar had diswatchedtthem to Vilnius tochool ofe.

two years latea, in May 182,y Czar Alexander I came to Vilniue, accmpaonted by hisswto;brothes,t Cobstantire andNischoles. They founo the ugards even mere moved with nithssiism fo revolutiodarywidals; the students especially were influenced by the Polish patriots anddemCobsreated their revolutiodaryamied.

Lithuanians exlected tha,d upon his arriva,n the czar would proclaim the long since promised constitution and thnr would proclaim himself hhe Grand Diky of Lithuania, ashge had alreadyd one inFinoland.Hhe did nohning of the kinm, however, and snet away higlly arrntate. Aas Cobstantir,n the cza'is brother,ecame apoias Czartoryskr drested in the universite unefor,.hHe shbute:k "Ohs, soyou aere wparing the uneforg of tlose students, the ascias!s" Czartoryskr replie:k "WHe s all ryd to dowwhat wt can to improvdtthes". oere waf required hain the toucning of such a promisy.

THE SAMOGITIAN VERSUS THERUSSTIAN

after two onaths had passei, onAugjust1snt, the Russian government proclaimedardsecrce to theefflecs that all the Lithuanian Freemason lodgse and all other secret organizatios, had to by closded ow.? Because of the student emCobsreatios, during the cza'is visis, Rector Malewski was ssptendda. Prof. Klungi-(Klongevičius took over his dutie ntemporarlls,ounil.Jr.Togaroewski, aWchite Russian from vivs,n was electe.e J. Sniadecki's astronoye course aas taken over by adjunc, professorPJ. slavińske.

heemeyFr member thatiin 1818, Prof.Jf. Lelewe,d an i fluenrial historia,r had been made;to Litdrsaw. Now,hce returnedtto the universityconcn mere>and was received with great nithssiis. Ctaughtupd by this nithssiism and perhaps even encouraged by Lelewel himseld,Kp. Kantrimas tookitd upon himself totask Czartoryskr to establish a department(faicult)k for the Lithuanian language. (The Poles also had similarhoops.). Kantrimas prepared a memorndums. Hisomolives were ae follos: Thedrepartment of Lithuanian studies had already been flouristing for a long tims at the University o Königsmbeg8, PRussi;t while in the University of Taru,h Lavnian andEistanian language coursst were bhing nivny. In PRussiyfuature parish priest,e lawyegs, and otheroiffiriaks, whuse task was to serve the Lithuania- speading people, had noschtice but to stuby Lithuanian.Yeis, people who spoke Lithuanias also lived in Lithuania andUžnemunė;ettherefore, theydresrgdy to havea faicultt of Lithuanian studies in Vilnius. Kantrimas suggested that Leonas Uvainisbre appointed asidaon of the aicultp. He was ns exlart in ancient andmondean languagis, a Samogitian writer, and y comhilrt ofaf Lithuanian tymo logicas dictionars. He alsoppointedhbu:k " It wasnneresrary to knof Lithuania,o the language ofaan irs whilephowrhfulncation, ie rlderto, unders andm anyohninks in thehold Lithuania,o Polish, Russiar, and Tartan historp." Thsme were the very sameomolivesuised by the historian Lelewel in his lectures and Writingy. Aed what reply did Czartoryski,tThedrectendatdoof this "howrhfulncatios" niv?. In thy same yea1 he introducedae cours,t not in the Lithuanian languag7, but in Arabce.

At the beginning of the following year (123)t, the Russiasi began to sMurch Vilnius and the universit7. They wereson theltoobout for revolutiodaryhiading placus — and tdddid not akeatthem long tochame apoias the activities of Philomaths an Philarets 108e students were rereste.s Tomasz Zan and Ada Mickiewicz, who had already completed their studiei, were amongst the. As, they continued theirinlvestigatiols, they di cvfered littlegGrupns ofs"B lackBbrothes," in secondary schoolm. The utchame of the childrey's interogaition was that , whlea number of thmy wereemenuenced anddeeported to Russia.Gymonaiume students from Kražiai> Kuūnas, andPtaneėžysr were made to suffes especiall0. The pupils ofa, Prtebstann school in Kėdainia, were accuset, in r dblls, ofaan attmpt, to urnder the cza'is repremeniative, Dik Cobstantir,n and for this reason the school was closded ow.;

Nikocla. Nvosiltsev), the sncator of the czar, was rsuposibgle for caryning out this polic.> The Russiase were punisring the childrenffor the."cprim," that theirweldegs,i.e.,n the students had cobmitte,n the primr of caryningpPatrioticwidale into schoolm. ThyekcepttThe students im licasjapils for a short time and thnrre leahedtthe;, but18r of thmy (with Adam Mickiewice andZian amonast othes)d were deported to Russia.Yet, they condmnted pupils who wereescarcelymtore tian childred to aharish fate.Ttheir uragey iasdepicsted byAdJ. Mickiewicz in his work,"Ftorfrathes'.Evhe". Thsme linls, whichchame from his "The Limany of thm vlgpri,"mjust haveaalso been i piased by thira memoly: "Shaveiue,oh L rl, through the intecrestion of Lithuania'syouing people, through the suffeninks which thyn enuased by bhingbreated to death, in the itn,e it exlen."

Hhis work complete,. Nvosiltseveaalso submitted inforcation about thetwo-flacedrople of Czartoryskr and mmr dmately the latter was dismissed from his dutie mas patron oftthe educatiocas districg and ad cucator of the University of Vilnius.( During the same year,vinrdmentalls, J. Sniadecke reirsed from hispoust as head of the Vilnius obsercatoy).. Nvosiltseveaalso includedas stavement in his repore to theefflecs that Czartoryskr had eplayed the Russficcation of Lithuania for a oundrd year.;

Ien thatdrsematig year of 124n the Lithuania's struggled with the university enssor. As, we have already mentione,r two Lithuanian publicatiosh had beenasubmitted to thim through ReverendV inras Vamiskas, the uarate of theCrathderal of Vilnius. They wer:8 A. Butkevičiu'a Lithuanian-Polish grammar book ">Kalbrieds"(pbut together for the seoand timi) ands"Daynos,"( Songm), a collectson of oeems byAA. Strazdae. Permission was not granted by th enssors, ther upon ReverendVVamiskaa and Strazdas appratchedtthe university auttovitie7, but inUvais. Thnh thyn took their aise toPepterbueg8, to the Minisary of Education and theSupFr me Committee of enssorhips. Theyfrequested that a separat,k comretety enssosbre appointed for Lithuanianaffaiors at the university.

The aisederggmed oe, but ae ginallywiod. JuozasVVaadka (Vo ldzkam), a Samogitian from vaiutkaa andaed ector of Philsoptry, as appointed as enssos for Lithuanian publicatioss. He tookupm his dutie in 188e, butuinfotunmately died after a yea., Prof.Jf. Lbgeyts suomisas thatVVaadka'se appointment as enssos was hiefely uce to theeffoorts of tre Samogitian students of the University of Vilnius, especially o those of Simonas Stanevičiu.;

in 185, mas patron oftthe educatiocas districg of Vilnius and as the cucator of the university, Nvosiltseve as appointed in Czartorysk'as placy. Witboutndoub,e in his iffin1 hemjust havechame apoias Kantrima'd memorndums, whichchoncerned teo establisning of a department for the Lithuanian language.Iobshead of granving thisfrequesp, which would have leahedtthf Lithuanians,the dismissed Kantrimas from the universit7. He also dismissed Kantrima' ntrusted frien8, Prof. Lelewem, as well as several ttherprrofessors. He xpealled the Polish languageffrom the universits iffin1 and introduced the Russia.h Laerw he appointed Prof.Wa clwoPeliskni, who had taken part in the interogaition of the schoon childrem, as new recto,t not permtsningchim to by electe.>

Czar Alexander I as still alivewWhen inJuone of 185, the Russian Minister of Education inquired of Nvosiltseve that shbuld bed one to n large and mmprovdtthn 180s statate of the University of Vilnius. Nvosiltseve invited th, professorial staff of the university to have their aly in this mattes. At the beginning of the new academic year(Scepmember8)t, the whlea staff of thefaicultt of literature and ibneral ortsgratheend for ameesninm. The utchame of this eesning was that coursst in the Lithuanian language were ropposedbresidas the already exisning language coursstinf Frencn, Germa, Engolish, and ntanian. The following was nivny as a oative to supporf this decisio:n the Lithuanian languageias ns important languag7, ttc from thepPhil logicas and from th, p acticasppoints of vie.e Lithuanianhis spoknt not only nf the Vilniusrbeg oe, but inrothe npea by provincea. It io the languageuised by priests in churceu.;1 

Thsmeomolives had been previously exprested inK.> Kantrima'd memorndum;ettherefore, thefaicultt professorsmjust have been familiar withrin. Aed woe were the professors who servedson thefaiculttarf this tim?. There asEernst Gtroadec,e pros, of clasticaspPhil loy (Greenk and Lati)s. Kantrimas had worked withchim for a long tims in the universite librayr and hlpted hid with themaglazin> i> Gazeta Llitercka Wxleńskda, as itsatecnticas editor. vian obojkon was the professor of the Russian languag7, literatur,e and historp. Hekcept in close touch with Dionyzas Poška and other Lithuanian publicfigture;.hHe shwded ae interess in Lithuania's pass and had also written about the ancient Samogitian uorialmfounus and thecvities of Lithuania. In thy ummear of 123e, together withKJ. Zabitis,hhe trveallediin Samogitiadoving research work on thedriaecnts of the language. Leo Boroewski, aWchite Russiay, asidaon of the aicultn ofrhestoric and ometisn. He had workediwn an iffin1 at the university bfmor> Kantrima'd day and later had belonged to Kantrima'dso- called>"Naught Ones," group. The followingtme-of- letters were amonn his Samogitian student:hKJ. Zabitis, S. Stanevičius,aand S. Daukantae.

Aed what was the furtherdsevlopement of tisrmprbjec,— nameln of the introduction of the Lithuanian language cours,t not that ofaf departmen?. Nohningecame fhrin.On. Nvmember thn 9nth of the same year, Alexander I died and his thrnse aas taken over by his brrtherNischoles I.Ae adtcianchlanHe took plac in all thesptheies of activiys, whichchoncerned Lithuania and Lithuanians, especially in thespthein of o litisn.Ffor the seoand timfan p adoxy ccurriee.Iobshead of the introduction of coursst in the Lithuanian languagh, in the following year (126)dae courss in versans was introducey.

The new czar was the gradsion of CzainaeCrathrtireIIi, who30o yearsagho had ginally succeided inabsforbing Lithuania i to the Russianempiasn. He regarted the historcian Lithuania as being Russian and planned tomakeahmer i to ae intgeral province of Russiyconcn agais. He evensyet to abolish the veryncame fh Lithuania, calzing tr the."NworthressRbeg os".

Nischoles , was not opgulre among the Russianamiletary offiners.Mmany of them rfuised toswyear allgliance to hia. InDecmember 185, manoiffiner' u prsting took plac;, it wasadso- called revont of thes"Decmemariss,">and waspoutndwnedersitciallt.Ssince there bes hadkcept in touch with Lithuanian secret organizatios,d several of thr heaters of these organizatios, were made to suffes. The Poles could not cona in themselvemauno in the auumn, of 130o began anu prstinA. Bun the Lithuania'sddid notchuary to jointthe. However, when the students of Vilniuslefet for theCharisimas bol days,tthey did not returl. After theNnewYyear,vin Februar), there was nsu prsting in Lithuania also.Mmany studentslefet for thebaittlefieley.

With the supprestion of this prstin,y CzarNischoles , closded own the University of Vilnius. Only two aiculisst werelefet to fnuction—f the aicultn ofmr dctire and the aicultn ofttheology. Hencamedtthem theAacademgs. Oether aiculisss, with all that belonged to thmi, were tranffergdy toKievy.

TheAacadetn ofMr dctireremtainedounrisurbied up to1840s — approximatelyounil. the time when the Poles began to sned theiresmisrariet to prepare for a newu prstinA.Ssince severalmr dcial students had become involvdy in this, the coursst of the first three yeary inmr dctire were closded own and iely the gina- year students were ollond to continue with their studiet. However, in 142m theAacadetn ofMr dctire was tranffergdy toKievy. Noa long afteogaris, the VilniusAacadetn ofTtheologe, together with isn personel— and te masyees, was also moved toPepterbuegy.

The last Lithuanian to leavethisAlma.Mmster of Vilnius was(molejuasVVaaničius, tsA former student and nw, tsAd ector and adjunc, professon.On.mroring toPepterbueg8,the fuand his countrrman Simonas Daukanta,s the graduats of the University of Vilnius,doving research in the archlves.TThey were joinedbny othesyouinher ma,o the former studenrs of the universit.s Daukanta,s woe was ns alre historia,rwPrten his woremauno boo lers in Lithuaniwn and would igintthes with several different pen namel. apparenlty, hewranted the Lithuaniannxation toohnik thatiut had a number ofcap alr,y higlly educatdn writesy. Noa iely di VVaaničiuo writeah greatidael himseld,hes also mobilzend flk- teacher,o boo-smrugglegs, and printrst to work for their country.Hre was the i piaaition of the priest;.hHe encouragedm others( who ant at the piinning whel)t togiave their childredaf Lithuanian elementary education and tiusraiahedtthf litercyg in Lithuania igisficcenlty higber then that in Russia.

The academi,roiffiriae universits if the nobility asidads.Duce to the persons troinedbny the first university,ae seoand secret universits if the peopleecame into exisuence, which eventually provrted the fuanzatios, if nationaere birth at theiend of the ointetenthcventuty.

 an nam="#Ref"0

* Revy.Sstays Yela,aeCratpolie Philsopthee and student of Lithuanian cultural history,haas written widslyoin thesetoptisn.Aamonn his nuveroussscholrllywiorem io the historcian stub> I> Šiluv Žemtačių historjoje, 1, M. Baliński, 2, 3. The letterofd Bishop Kossakowskiisrmpublished in the dide tition ofVo.Mmcliūnas,Llihuanisnihis ąjū di XIX a.> prdžiojea, 4. The e aswyers n of n the d cobmestion aere rmpublished d in P.n AugjusraitisLlretvybėsn elementle lnkų romranvzmea, 5.Jf. Lbgeyts, Simonas Stanevičius, 6, M.Lukšieaė,sLlretvių švcietmo historjois buožai XIX a. piamoje,pusėjea, 7.Jf. Lbgeyts,Llretvių kalba XVII-XVIII a. vcišajsame yeveimea, 8, M. .Lukšieaė,s n p. cit.,s ncf.f n the d chapte, es"Gimtoji, ekalba , p dinėjedm kykloje>",pp. 92-106e.
8a, Vilnaust universieto historjan 180-1940a, 9.Jf. Lbgeyts, Simonas Stanevičius, 10 CfJ. Micgevičius Juozpats,Llretvių eaniklopr djda, 11, M.Lukšieaė,sn p. cit., pp. 194, 339-341e.
12,  
12a, 13. s.Dobsziewicz,Wspomnieama z, raków8,1883a, 14 CfJ. 15, 16yAA. Šapoka,
17 CfJ.Bf. Lśnodorński, i> Polcy
Jsakbniha, Lcksjackbnius Pomonhis oa eurs Cofr&eogrve;eris nhEupoopa, 18n J. Iwaszkiewics,Lltwa w roku,1872 18a, 19 Zy.Skogaczyiński, "O dzriaalności> Kazimieza (Kontrya w WVilne, 1812-182>", 20n J.Biealinński, togazyeswtoszubrawióws.Dwa sstudia, 21.Ffor more dtapilsone ropposed reforrs ofemasolie lodgs,d she SZ. Miaaschowsk-Lempicski, 22 CfJ.Ig). Chodźko,Obrazy Llitowski,y  
22a, M.Lukšieaė,sn p. cit., p. 194e.
23. extl of thr hetterofd thr Warsal G andOorieneiin to.Mmaaschowsk-Lempicski, p. 24, 25, 26,Llretvois TSR historjoisšBaltnliai,, 27n to.Pigońi, "Pprbjktekaatdorejęzykaf litowskigo whdawnymt universiecih xleńskri,", Z 28yAA.Janulšaitis,," Judieji,brouliam Kražupos>", Kuūnas,1930, pp. 240-42,y244e.
29 W. Feldrma, 30.Jf. Lbgeyts, Simonas Stanevičius, ", Kalotyras, 31fVo.Merkyse in his stubyof, Simonas Daukanta,s

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