LITUANUS
LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES
 
Volume 44, No.1 - Spring 1998
Editor of this issue: Antanas Klimas
ISSN 0024-5089
Copyright 1998 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.
Lituanus

MARTYNAS MAVYDAS AND JOHN WYCLIFFE:
AN ENGLISH CONNECTION?

WILLIAM R. SCHMALSTIEG*
The Pennsylvania State University

The purpose of this brief note is to suggest that the influence of the English religious reformer Wycliffe might be discerned in the First Lithuanian Catechism. Probably direct influence cannot be proven, but at least there is a striking parallelism between Martynas Mavydas and John Wycliffe in the rendering of the Decalogue. For Christian religious reformers beginning at least as early as the 14th century and perhaps continuing until today the correct vernacular rendering of the Ten Commandments was (and is) a serious matter occasioning much controversy. Just at the time Mavydas was writing his Catechism, the Polish Protestant reformers Jan Sandecki-Malecki and Jan Seklucjan were disputing about the translation of sacred texts.

In 1545 Seklucjan published his Simple Text of the Catechism for Simple People (Katechismu tekst prosty dla prostego ludu). Malecki made critical annotations in a copy of this catechism of Seklucjan and in 1546 Malecki issued his own catechism, which ended with a brief justification of his method of translation. Secklucjan, in turn, entered his criticisms in his copy of Malecki's work and sent it to Malecki's patron Paul Speratus. At Speratus' request Malecki replied to the criticism with A Defense, against the Calumnies of Jan Seklucjan, of the True Translation of the Body of the Catechism in the Polish language (Defensio verae translationis Corporis Catechismi in linguam polonicam. aduersus calumnias Ioannis Secluciani) in which Malecki answered Seklucjan's criticisms and also examined Seklucjan's new, larger catechism published in 1547 (Frick 1989:14).

Seklucjan had translated phrases of the type Latin Non habebis... Thou shalt not have...' with the Polish second singular future as Nie bdziesz mia... Thou shalt not have... whereas Malecki had used the second singular negative imperative Nie miey... 'Don't have...' Malecki argues first that Latin uses the future because of a peculiarity of Hebrew, which 'often replaces tense for tense, mood for mood, future for present, and present for future. This is peculiar to this language.' ('In Hebraea lingua in veteri testamento, saepius ponitur tempus pro tempore, modus pro modo, futurum pro praesenti et praesens pro futuro. Hoc enim huic linguae peculiare est.') Malecki then appeals to the sense of the passage: 'But the law of God indicates our sin and constantly asserts it and terrifies and damns us' (Porro lex Dei indicat peccatum, et perpetuo arguit, terret, at damnat nos). Malecki is certain of his interpretation because he can quote Martin Luther, who argues that the sense of the command requires the use of the present tense. Since the law is for all time, these negative commands must be rendered in Polish not with the future indicative but with the second person singular of the present tense of the imperative mood: Nie miey 'Don't have... (Frick 1989: 21-22).

Malecki finds further support for his argument in Luther's German translation: Du solt nicht ander goetter haben, Thou shalt not have other gods,' du solt nicht toedten 'thou shalt not kill,' du solt nicht ehebrechen 'thou shalt not commit adultery.' He renders these phrases in Polish with the negative imperatives Nie miey Bogow ijnych 'Don't have other gods,' nie zabijaj 'don't kill,' nie cudzolosz 'don't commit adultery.'1 For Malecki this is preferable because it takes less time to say, and also sounds more pleasant and sweet. The word bdziesz 'you (sg.) will' on the other hand is 'rough.' Its first syllable is an 'imperfect Polish diphthong,' which is difficult to pronounce and its second syllable is 'uncouth and rough,' and difficult to pronounce. According to Malecki, such words, in a language that is already 'harsh' enough, should be avoided as much as possible, especially in texts for the instruction of the people (Frick 1989: 22). Those of us who are not native speakers of Polish can certainly agree with Malecki about the difficulties of pronunciation of this language.

Malecki further rejects the phrase Nie bdcie tobie bogowie yny 'Let there not be to thee other gods' as a literal rendering of the 'Hebrew' Non sint tibi alii dii. Malecki writes in his Defense (Frick 1989:22): 'Just so in all the negative precepts of the Decalogue, as Doctor Martin Luther writes in a certain brief treatise about the Decalogue, the future indicative is to be replaced by the second person singular of the present tense, imperative mood: thus, 'Thou shalt not have'; Thou shalt not kill'; Thou shalt not covet'; are to be replaced by 'Don't have'; 'Don't kill,' 'Don't covet.' Thus the law of God might seem to say: 'Behold you have other gods'; 'Behold you kill'; 'Behold, you are an adulterer'; 'Behold you covet.' 'Don't have other gods.' 'Don't kill, don't covet': and thus in the present tense let it assert, frighten and damn us.' ('Proinde in omnibus praeceptis Decalogi negativis, ut Doctor Martinus Lutherus in quodam commentariolo super Decalogum scribit, futurum indicativi exponendum est, per secundam personam singularem praesentis temporis, imperativi modi: ut, Non habebis: Non occides: Non concupisces, exponatur, per Non habe, Non occide, Non concupisce. Ut lex Dei videatur dicere: Ecce habes Deos alienos: Ecce occidis: Ecce Mechus es: Ecce concupiscis. Non habe Deos alienos. Non occide, Non concupisce: atque ita in praesenti tempore, arguat, terreat, ac damnet nos.'). Prof. J. M. Claassen points out to me that classical Latin would not use non with the imperative as does Malecki, but either noli plus the infinitive or ne with the present or perfect subjunctive.

According to Brockelmann (1913: 20) the imperative cannot be combined with a negative in any of the old Semitic languages. Now according to Prof. Haim Rosn of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Biblical Hebrew the negative particle l(') plus the prefixed form of the verb (not the imperative!) expressed in the Decalogue an absolute categorical prohibition (personal communication). But the Septuagint translation represents the Post-Biblical understanding of Hebrew in which the prefixed form of the verb (abbreviated below as pref.) had come to be understood as a future (see Rosn 1984: 232-233 and 1997: 302). Thus the Hebrew prefixed form l(') tirsah 'don't kill, thou shalt not kill' is rendered by the future tense in the Greek Septuagint translation ou phoneúseis. Similarly the Hebrew prefixed verbs w =l(') tin'ap 'and thou shalt not commit adultery' and w =l(') tignub 'and thou shalt not steal' are rendered by the future tense in Greek ou moikheúseis and ou klpseis respectively.2 The Latin Vulgate has correspondingly the future tense in non occides 'thou shalt not kill,' neque moechaberis 'thou shalt not commit adultery,' and furtumque non facies 'thou shalt not commit theft, thou shalt not steal.'

As is well known the ten commandments occur twice in the Old Testament, once in Exodus 20:3-17 and once in Deuteronomy 5:6-21. (The Latin transcription of the Hebrew Exodus comes from Richter 1991a:178-181 and the Hebrew Deuteronomy from Richter 1991b:410-414.3 The English interlinear translations of the Hebrew text come from Kohlenberger's Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament [Exodus pp. 200-202 and Deuteronomy pp. 498-500]. The Greek translations with suffix a. are from the Septuagint and the Latin translations with suffix b. are from the Vulgate.)

Thus Exodus 20:3:

1. l(') yihy l=ka 'il*hm 'ahirm

'al

pan-ay=[y]

(neg.) (3sg. pref.) (prep.)

(prep)

not he-shall-be to-you gods other-ones

before

face-of-m

1a ouk sontai soi theoi hteroi

pln

emo.

neg.) (3rd pl. fut.)  (dat. sg.) (nom.pl.) (nom. pl.) 

(prep.) 

(gen. sg.)

not will be to you gods other

than

me.

1b.

non habebis deos  alienos  coram 

me.

(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)  (acc.pl.)  (prep)

(acc.sg.) 

not you will have gods other but

me.

Exodus 20:7:

2. (')  tia(') at  im  YHWH

'il*h=ka

1'  =[h]a=aw'.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) acc.pl.) 
not you=shall-take *** name-of Yahweh God-of-you for-the -missue.

 

2a.

lou  lps 'tò noma  kuríou  to theo  sou epì mataí
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut. middle indic.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (prep.) (dat. sg.)
not thou shall  take for thyself the name of lord of God thy in vain.

2b. non absumes nomen Domini Dei tui in vanum
(neg) (2nd sg. fut.)  (acc. sg.)  (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (prep) (acc.)
not you will take name of Lord God thine n vain.

Exodus 20:8

3. zakr  'at ym  ha=abbat[t] l=qaddi=o.
(inf. abs.) (acc.)
to-remember  *** day-of the sabbath to-keep-holy-him.

3a. mnsthti tn hmran tn sabbtn

hagidzein

autn.

(2nd sg. passive aor. imperative) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.) (gen. pl.)  (gen. pl.) 

(inf)

(acc. sg.)

remember the day of the sabbaths

to keep holy

it.

3b. memento ut diem sabbati sanctifices.
(2nd sg. fut. imperative) (conj.)  (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (2nd sg. subj.)
remember that day of sabbath you keep holy

Exodus 20:12:

4.  kabbid  'at  'abi=ka w= 'at

'imm-i=ka.

(2nd sg. imperative)  (acc.) (conj.) (acc.)
honor! *** father-of-you and ***

mother -of-you

4a.  tima tòn patra sou kaì

tn

mtra
sou
(2nd sg.imperative) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (conj.) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.)
honor the father thy and the mother thy.

4b, honora patrem tuum metrem tuam.
(2nd sg.imperative) (acc. sg.) (conj.) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg. fem.)

Exodus 20:13:

5. l(') tirsah.
 (neg.) (2nd sg. prefixed)
not not you-shall-murder.

5a. ou phoneseis.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
not thou shalt kill.

5b. non occides.
(neg) (2nd sg. fut.)
not thou shalt kill.

Exodus 20:14

6. l(') tin'ap
(neg.) (2nd sg. prefixed)
not you-shall-commit-adultery.

 

6a. ou moikheúseis.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
not thou shalt commit adultery.

6b. neque moechaberis.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
not thou shatl-commitadultery.

Exodus 20:15;

7. l(') tignub.
(neg.) (2nd sg. prefixed)
not you-shall-steel.

7a. ou klpseis.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
not thou shalt steel.

7b. non futur facies.
(neg.) (acc. sg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
not theft thou shalt steel.

Exodus 20:16;

8. l(') ti'n b'= ri'= ka

'e*d

aqr.

(neg.) (2nd sg. prefixed)
not you-give against neighbor of-you

testimony

false

8a. ou pseudomarturseis kat to plesion

sou

martrian

pseud
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (prep.) (gen. sg.) (adv.) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.)
thou shalt falsely bear against thae one near

of you

witness

false.

8b. non loqueris contra proximum tuum

falsum

testimonium.

(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (prep.) (acc. sg.)

(acc. sg.)

not thou shalt speak against neighbor thy

false

witness.

Exodus 20:17:

9. l(') tìhmud  bt ri'-i=ka
(neg.) (2nd sg. prefixed)
not you shall covert house-of neighbor-of-you

 

l(') tìhmud  'it ri'-i=ka
(neg.) (2nd sg. prefixed)
not you shall covert wife-of neighbor-of-you

 

w='abd= w' =  mat=
or-man-servant-of-him or or woman-servant-of-him

w' = r= w'him*r= w' =kul[l]
or ox-of-him or-donkey-of-him or-anything

 

 'ar  l' =ri' - i= ka
that to-neighbor-of-you

 

9a. ouk epithumseis tn gunaika to

plsion

sou

ouk epithumseis tn oikian
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc.sg.) (gen.sg.)

(adv.)

(gen.sg.)

(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc.sg.)
not thou shalt covet the wife of the one

near 

oneself

not thou shalt covet the house

to plsion sou oúte tn agrn auto oute tn paida auto,
(gen.sg.) (adv.) (gen.sg.) (neg.) (acc.sg.) (acc.sg.) (gen.sg.) (neg) (acc.sg.) gen.sg.)
of the one near oneself not the field of him nor the man-servant of him

oúte tn paidiskn auto, oúte to bos  auto,
(acc.sg.) (acc.sg.) (gen.sg.) (neg.) (gen.sg.) (gen.sg.)
nor the maid-servant of him nor the ox of him

oúte to hupodzugiou auto, oúte to pantòs ktnous auto
(neg.) (gen.sg.) (gen.sg.) (neg.) (gen.sg.) (gen.sg.) (gen.sg.)
not the  donkey of him, nor the whole flock of him

oúte pánta hsa t plsion  soú esti
(neg.) (acc.pl.) (acc.sg.) (dat.sg.) (adv.) (gen.sg.) (3 sg.pres.)
not everything which to him near to oneself is.

9b. non concupisces domum proximi tui nec desiderabis uxorem eius non servum
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc.pl.) (gen.sg.) (neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc.pl.) (gen.) (neg.) (acc.pl.)
not thou shalt desire house of neighbor thy nor thou shalt desire wife his not servant

 

non ancillam non bovem non asinum nec omnia quae illius sunt.
(neg.) (acc.pl.) (neg.) (acc.pl.) (neg.) (acc.pl.) (nec.) (acc.pl.) (nom.pl.) (gen.sg.) (3pl.pres.)
not  maid servant not ox not donkey nor all things which his are

Deuteronomy 5:7:

1. l(') yihy l' =ka 'ilo*him áhirim 'al  pan-ay=[y].
(neg.) (3 sg. prefixed) (prep.) (nom.pl.) (nom.pl.) (prep.)
not he shall be to-you gods other-ones before faces-of-me.

1a. ouk sontai soi theoi hteroi  prò prospou mou.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (data sg.) (nom.pl.) (nom.pl.) (prep.) (gen.sg.) (gen.sg.)
not will be to you gods other befors  face my.

1b. non habebis deos alienos in conspectu meo.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc.pl.) (prep.) (abl. sg.
not you will have gods other in sight my.

Deuteronomy 5:11:

2. l(') tia(')  'at im YHWH 'ilo*he=ka  1'=[h]a=aw'.
(neg.) (2nd sg. prefixed) (acc.)
not tou shall take ***  name=of Yahweh God-of you for-the -misuse.

2a. ou lpsi noma kuríou to theo sou epi matai.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut. indicative middle) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (prep.) dat. sg.)
not thou shalt take for thyself the name of lord of God thy in vain.

2b. non usurpabis nomen Domini Dei tui frustra
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (adv.)
not you will use name of Lord God thine in vain.

Deuteronomy 5:12:

3. amr at' ym ha=abbat[t] l =qaddi =.
(inf. abs.) (acc.)
to-observe *** day-of the sabbath to-keep-holy-him.

3a. phlaksai tn hmran tn sabbtn hagidzein autn.
(2nd sg. middle aor. imperative) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.) (gen. pi.) (gen. pi.) (inf.) (acc. sg.)
observe the day of the sabbaths to keep holy it.

3b. observa diem sabbati ut sanctifices eum.
(2nd sg. imperative) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (conj.) (2nd sg. subj.) (acc. sg.)
observe day of sabbath so that you keep holy it/

Deuteronomy 5:16:

4. kabbid  'at 'ab=ka w ='at 'imm-i=ka.
(2nd sg. imperative) (acc.) (conj.) (acc.)
honor! *** father-of-you and mother-of-you/

4a. tima tn patra sou kai tn mtra sou.
(2nd sg. imperative) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (conj.) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.)
honor the father thy and the mother thy.

4b. honora! patrem tuum et matrem.
(2nd sg. imperative) (acc. sg.) (conj.)
hpnor father thy and mother.

Deuteronomy 5:17:

5. l(') tirsah.
(neg.)  (2nd sg. fut.) 
not you-shall-murder.

5a. ou phoneseis.
(neg.)  (2nd sg. fut.) 
not thou shalt kill.

5b. non occides.
(neg.)  (2nd sg. fut.) 
not  thou shalt kill.

Deuteronomy 5:18:

6. w'=l(') tin'ap.
(conj.) (neg.) (2nd sg. prefixed)
and-not and-not you-shall-commit-adultery.

6a. ou moikheúseis.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
not not thou shalt commit adultery.

6b. neque moechaberis.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
not not thou shalt commit adultery.

Deuteronomy 5:19:

7. w'=lo( ' ) tignub
(conj.) (neg.) (2nd sg.prefixed)
and-not you-shall-steel.

7a. ou klpseis.
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
not thou shalt steal.

7b. furtumque non facies.
(neg.) (neg.) (2nd sg. fut.)
theft not thou shalt steal.

Deuteronomy 5:20:

8. w'=lo( ' ) ti'na b'= ri'= ka 'e*d aw'.
(conj.) (neg.) (2nd sg.prefixed)
and-not you-give against neighbor of-you testimony false.

8a. ou pseudomarturseis kat to plesion sou martúrian pseud
(neg.) (2ndsg. fut.) (prep.) (gen. sg.) (adv.) (gen. sg.) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.)
not hou shalt falsely bear against the one near oneself witness false.

8b. nec loqueris contra proximum tuum, falsum testimonium.
(neg.) (2ndsg. fut.) (prep.)nec l(acc. sg.) (acc. sg.)
nor thou shalt speak against neoghbor thy false witness.

Deuteronomy 5:21:

9. w'=lo( ' ) tíhmud 'it ri'-i= ka w'=lo( ' ) tit'aww bt ri'-i= ka
(conj.) (neg.) (2nd sg.prefixed) (conj.) (neg.) (2nd sg.prefixed)
and=not you-shall-covet wife-of neighbor of-you and=not you-shall-desire house-of neighbor of-you

 

sad-i=hu(w) w' ='abd= w = 'mat= r=  w =him*r= w'=kul[l] 'sr 1'= ri'-i= ka.
land-of-him or-manservant-of-him or woman-servant-of-him ox of-him or-donkey-of-him or-anything that to neighbor of-you.

 

9a. ouk epithumseis tn gunaka to plsion soú ouk epithumseis tn oikían
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (adv.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc. sg.)
not thou shalt covet the wife of the one near oneself not thou shalt covet the house

 

to plsion soú, oúte tn paida auto oúte tn paidiskn auto oúte
(gen. sg.) (adv.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (neg.)
of the one near oneself, not the man-servant of him, nor the maid-servant of him, not

 

to bos auto oúte to hupodzugíou auto oúte pantòs ktnous auto
(gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.)
the ox of him, not the donkey of him, not the whole flock of his

 

oúte pánta hsa t plsion soú esti.
(neg.) (acc. pl.) (acc. pl.) (dat. sg.) (adv.) (gen. sg.) (3 sg. pres.)
not everything which to him near to oneself is.

 

9b. non concupisces uxorem proximi tui non domum non agrum non servum
(neg.) (2nd sg. fut.) (acc. sg.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (acc. sg.) (neg.) (acc. sg.) (neg.) (acc. sg.)
not thou shalt desire wife of neighbor thy not house not field not servant

 

non ancillam non bovem non asinum et universa quae illius sunt.
(neg.) (acc. sg.) (neg.) (acc. sg.) (neg.) (acc. sg.) (acc. sg.) (nom. pi.) (gen. sg.) (3 pl. pres.)
not maid-servant not ox not donkey and all thongs which his are.

Now it is generally accepted that Mavydas used both the Seklucjan and Malecki Catechisms in preparing his own translation (Stang 1929: 1-2; Zinkeviius 1988: 26). In Mavydas' Catechism the Ten Commandments occur twice and in different versions. Below I give first the Lithuanian complete text version followed by Malecki's 1546 Polish version with the suffix a. and then by Seklucjan's 1545 Polish version with the suffix b.:

1. Ne tureki kytu Diewa (for Diewu) preg mans, 
(neg.) (2 sg. imperative)
Not have other  gods before me.

 

1a. Nie miey boguow ijnych przi mnie.
(neg.) (2nd sg. imper.) (gen. pl.)
Not have gods other before me.

1b. Niebdziesz mia bogow ynich nadmi.
neg. + 2nd sg. fut.) (masc. nom. sg. part.)  (gen.-acc. pl.) (prep. + instr. sg.)
Yhou shalt not have gods other above me.

(According to Rospond 1948: 23, fn. 1, Malecki in his copy of Seklucjan's Catechism underlined Niebdziesz mia and wrote beside it Niemiey 'Don't have' [2nd sg. imperative].)

2. Negimki warda pana, Diewa tawa naprasnai.
(neg.+2nd sg. imperative)
Not  take name of lord, God thy in vain.

2a. Nie bierz na proznoscz ijmienia pana boga twego
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative) (gen. sg.)
Not take in vain name of Lord God thy.

2b. Niebziesz bra ymienia pana boga thwego na-daremnie.
(neg. + 2nd sg. fut.) (nom. sg. part.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.)
Thou shalt not take name of Lord God thy in vain.

(According to Rospond 1948: 23, fn. 3, Malecki in his copy of Seklucjan's Catechism underlined Niebziesz bra and wrote beside it Niebierz 'Don't take' [2nd sg. imperative].)

3. Atminki idank (for idant) diena schwenta  schwestumbi.
(2nd sg. imperative) 2nd sg. subj.)
Remember that day holy you keep holy.

3a. Pamitay aby dzien swity swicil.
(2nd sg. imperative) (conj.) (acc. sg.) (masc. nom. sg. part.)
Remember that day holy keep holy.

3b. Pamitay abys dzien switi  swicil
(2nd sg. imperative) (conj.) (acc. sg.) (masc. nom. sg. part.)
Remember that day holy keep holy.

4. Cziastawaki tewa ir matina tawa iei nari ilgai giwenti ant szemes.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Honor father and mother thy if you wish long to live on earth.

4a. Czci oytcza twego y matk tw.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Honor father thy and mother thy

(According to Rospond 1948: 35, fn. 4, Seklucjan reproached his opponent for omitting the words chceszli dugo bye ziw na ziemi 'if you wish to be alive for a long time on earth.')

4b. Cczi oiczathwego y matk...
(2nd sg. imperative)
Honor father thy and mother...

5. Ne vmuschki. 
(neg.)  (2nd sg. imperative)
Don't kill.

5a. Nie zabijay.
(neg.)  (2nd sg. imperative)
don't kill.

5b. Niebdziesz zabial.
(neg. + 2nd sg. fut.) (masc. nom. sg. part.) 
Thou shalt not kill.

(According to Rospond 1948: 24, fn. 1, Malecki in his copy of Seklucjan's Catechism did not underline the phrase but in the margin wrote: Nie zabiyay 'Don't kill' [2nd sg. imperative].)

6. Ne ijsaki swetimas materis.
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative)
Don't  violate another's wife.

6a. Nie czudzoloz.
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative)
Don't commit adultery.

6b. Niebdziesz czudzolozil.
(neg. + 2nd sg. fut.) (masc. nom. sg. part.)
thou shalt not commit adultery.

(According to Rospond 1948: 24, fn. 2, Malecki in his copy of Seklucjan's Catechism did not underline the phrase but in the margin wrote: Nie czudzolosz 'Don't  commit adultery' [2nd sg. imperative].)

7. Ne waky.
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative)
Don't steal.

7a. Nie kradnij.
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative)
Don't steal.

7b. Niebdziesz   kradl.
(neg. + 2nd sg. fut.) (mase. nom. sg. part.)
Thoshalt not steal.

(According to Rospond 1948: 24, fn. 3, Malecki in his copy of Seklucjan's Catechism did not underline the phrase but in the margin wrote: Nie kradn 'Don't steal' [2nd sg.o imperative].)

8. Ne liudiki prysch artima tawa neteisaus liudima.
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative)

8a. Niemow swiadecztwa falszywego przeciw blizniemu twemu.
(neg. + 2nd sg. imperative.) (gen.sg.) (prep.) (dat.sg.)

8b. Niebedziesz falsiwie swiathczil przeciw blisznemv thwemv.
(neg. + 2nd sg. fut.) (adv.) (masc.part.) (prep.) (dat.sg.)

(According to Rospond 1948: 24, fn. 4, Malecki in his copy of Seklucjan's Catechism underlined the phrase Niebdziesz falsiwie swiathczil but in the margin wrote: Nie mow [2nd sg. imperative] swiadecztwa falsziwego 'Do not speak false witness.')

9. Ne gieiski hukia artima tawa.
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative)
 Don't desire house of neighbor thy.

9a. Nie pozday domu bliniego twego.
((neg.) (2nd sg. imperative) (gen.sg.)
 Don't covet house of neighbor thy.

9b. Niepoday domv blysznego thwego.
(2nd sg. imperative) (gen.sg.) (gen.sg.)
Do not covet house of neighbor thy.

(According to Rospond 1948: 24, fn. 5, Malecki in his copy of Seklucjan's Catechism wrote in the margin: Cur reliqua precepta non eodem modo transtulisti 'Why didn't you translate the other commandments in the same way?' That is, Malecki is asking why Seklucjan did not use the imperative rather than the future in the other commandments as well.)

10. Ne gieiski moteris ia, nei berua (for berna) nei mergas nei
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative)
Don't desire wife his, nor manservant nor maidservant neither

 

iauczia nei aschila, ir ne wena daikta kurssai ia esti.
ox, nor ass and no one thing which his is.

 

10a. Nie poday ony iego, ani slugi, ani sluebnice,
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative) (neg.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (gen. sg.)
Not covet wife his, nor man-servant, nor maid-servant,

ani wolu, ani konia, ani adnych rzecy iego.
(neg.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (gen. sg.) (neg.) (gen. sg.)
nor ox, nor horse nor any things his.

10b. Niebdziesz pozdal ony slvgi dziewki wolv osla
(neg. + 2nd sg. fut.) (masc. part.) (gen. sg.) (gen. sg.) v
Thou shalt not covet wife man-servant maid servant ox ass

 

blisznego thwego. Any xadnei rzeczi ktora iest iego.
(gen. sg.) (3rd sg. pres.) (gen. sg.)
of neighbor thy. Or any thing that is his.

In the Hymns we encounter a version of the Decalogue meant to be sung (those with suffix a. from Seklucjan's 1545 Polish Catechism [Stang 1929:10; Rospond 1948: 29-30]):

1. Turek szmagau wena Diewa.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Have oh man one God.

1a. Miei zawszdi boga iedinego.
(2nd sg. imperative)
have always god one.

2. Neimk dawanai ia warda.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't take in vain his name.

2a. Niemien prono minia iego.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't take in vain name his.

3. Atmink Diena schwenta schwesti.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Remember day holy to celebrate.

3a Pomnij zawszdi  swieto swiecziz.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Remember always holy day to celebrate.

 

4. Tiewa matina garbink.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Father mother honor.

4a. Oicza ij matk thwa thsczic.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Father and mother your honor.

5. Ne vszmuschki ne wena.
(neg.) (2nd sg. imperative) not even one.
Don't kill

5a. Niezabiai nikogo.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't kill anyone.

 

6. Ne dirpk greka tu biauraia.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't do sin you ugly.

6a. Nieczijn grzechv niecistego.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't do sin unclean.

 

7. Newak daiktu artimaia. 
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't steal things of neighbor.

7a. Niekradn nigdi nicz cudzego. 
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't steal never nothing of another.

8. Neludik ne pateisei.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't witness  not correctly.

8a. Nieswiadc falszv adnego.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Don't witness  false (about) anyone.

9. Hukia daiktu ijr materes.
House things and wife.

9a. Czudzei rzezij
Another's things

10. Ne gieisi artimaia.
(2nd sg. fut.)
 Thou shalt not covet neighbor's

10a. Ani ony niepodaij blisznego.
(2nd sg. imperative)
Nor wife don't covet neighbor's

It seems that in the full text version of the Ten Commandments Mavydas follows Malecki more closely, whereas in the hymns Mavydas follows Seklucjan. Frick (1989: 17) notes that Malecki was a great admirer of the Czech language and believed that the Polish language arose from the Czech

language. Malecki relied heavily upon Czech religious literature. Therefore it seems certain that he was aware of the Hussite reform. And it is also well known that Hus was heavily influenced by John Wycliffe. Thus, for example, Loserth (1884:281) writes: '...if one takes into consideration the great number of definitions which Hus transcribes word for word from Wiclif, - of the Church, Faith, the Indulgence, Sacraments, Heresy, etc., - one might easily be led to the belief that, with the exception of the Bible and some few of the Fathers, Hus consulted in his theological studies no other sources than those of Wiclif only.'

I quote next, then, Wycliffe's English adaptation of Archbishop Thoresby's Ten Commandments as they appear in his Catechism (from Simmons and Nolloth, eds. 1901):

Wycliffe adaptation:

(1) Thou schalt haue o god and no mo. Non adorabis deos alienos (p. 33).

(2) In ydyl godys name tak (imperative) pou noth. Non assumes nomen dei tui in vanum (p. 37).

(3) Kepe (imperative) py halyday in clene lyf. Sabbata sanctifices (p. 39).

(4) Fadyr and modyr worschipe (imperative) both. Honora parentes (p. 43).

(5) Sie (imperative) noman with wykkyd wyl. Non occides. In the explanation of this commandment we find, however: pou schalt not sie (p. 47).

(6) Synne (imperative) pou not in leccherye. In the explanation of this commandment, a few lines farther on we find, however: pou schalt not do leccherye nober in consent in hert ne spekynge ne in countenaunce withowte-forp (p. 49).

(7) Stele (imperative) pou not by neijbors byng. In the explanation of this commandment we find, however: Thow schalt do no pefte. (p. 51).

(8) Fals wytnesse pow noon beere (imperative) py neyjbore wyttyngly to dere. In the explanation of this commandment we find, however: pou schalt not speke fals wytnesse ageyns py neybore. (p. 53)

(9) Thy neyjbours wif coueyte (imperative) pou 1103!... (p. 55)

(10) Thy neygboris hows, wenche ne knaue Coueyte (imperative) hem no3t. ne his goodys to haue. Then Wycliffe explains that the meaning of the ninth and tenth commandments is: Thow schalt not coueyte py ney3borys wyf. ne his hows ne his seruaunt ne his maydyn./ ne his oxe ne his werk-best. ne ony thyng pat ys his (p. 55).

According to Mustanoja (1960: 489-490): 'At the beginning of the M(iddle) E(nglish) period the use of the periphrastic future with shall and will begins to gain ground, although it is often difficult to say whether these verbs are to be interpreted as auxiliaries of pure futurity or whether obligation or volition is implied. In the majority of instances a modal implication seems to be present.'

Perhaps I am relying too much on my native feeling for contemporary American English, but it seems to me that the Thou (Thow. pou) schalt construction is not only future, but also has at least a nuance of obligation which one might term as an imperative.

Whether Wycliffe was the person who introduced the use of the negative imperative in the vernacular translation of the Ten Commandments or not is unclear. The tides of reform were sweeping across Europe and it is surely difficult to be certain that one has the first attestation of any popular idea.4

None of the Czech decalogues which I have been able to locate show the use of the second singular imperative rather than the future, although there may exist some Czech catechisms which were unavailable to me. On the other hand the use of the negative imperative in the decalogues of Wycliffe, Malecki and Mavydas is certainly striking.

It might be noted that neither in the Old Prussian Enchiridion (1561) nor in the Old Latvian Catechisms (1585 and 1586) do we find the use of the negative imperative in the Ten Commandments:

Old Prussian Enchiridion (Maiulis 1981:106-116):

1. Tou niturri kittans Deiwans pagr mien turtwei.
(2nd sg. pres.)
du solt nicht andere Gtter  neben mir haben.

 

2. Tou turri stan twaise Emnan Deiwas ni enbndan   westwei.
Du solt den Namen des Herren deines Gottes nicht vergeblich  fren.

 

3. Tou turri stan Lnkinan Deinan Swintint.
Du solt den feyr- tag heyligen.

(The formula: Gedenck des Sabbaths das du jhn heyligest is usually given, but the earlier Luther's Catechism formula seems to fit the Old Prussian better.)

4. Tou turri twaian Twan bhe Mtien smnint. 
Du solt dein Vater vnd dein Mutter ehren.

 

5. Tou niturri gallintwei.
Du solt nicht Tdten.

 

6. Tu niturri Sallubanlimtwei.
Du solt nich Ehebrechen.

 

7. Tou  niturri Rnctwei.
Du solt nicht Steelen.

 

8. Tou niturri reddewijdikausnan dtwei prijki.
Du    solt  kein falsche zeugnus geben wider.

 

9. Tou niturri Pallaipsitwei  twaisei tawischas buttan.
Du solt nicht begeren deines nechsten Hauss.

 

10. Tou niturri pallaipsitwei  twaise  tawischas Gannan
Du solt nicht  begeren deinas Nechsten Weib

 

Waikan Mergan Peckan  adder ka tenneison ast.
Knecht Magt  Viech oder was sein ist.

Latvian Catechismus Catholicorum (1585: 20-21):

1. teuw nebues wairak Dewes urret ka mannim wen.
(dat. sg.) (neg.+3 fut.) (acc. pl.)  (inf.)
To thee will not be more gods to have than me only.

 

2. Tou nebues Dewe touwe kunge warde nepattesce  walkot.
(dat. sg.) (neg.+3 fut.)
To thee will not be God thy lord name in vain to take.

 

3. Peemin ka tu tho schweden schwete.
(imper.) (acc. sg.)
Remember that thou the holy day keep holy.

 

4. Tew bues touwe Thewe vnde mate cenan turret.
(dat. sg.) (3 fut.) (inf.)
To thee will be thy father and mother honor to have.

 

5. Teuw nebues nokout.
(dat. sg.) (neg. + 3 fut.)  (inf.)
To thee will not be to kill.

 

6. Teuw nebues loulibe  paerloust.
(dat. sg.) (neg. + 3 fut.)  (inf.)
To thee will not be marriage to break.

 

7. Teuw nebues sackt,
(at. sg.) (neg. + 3 fut.)  (inf.)
To thee will not be to steal.

 

8. Tew nebues nepattece lecibe doedt prettibe touwe tuake.
(dat. sg.) (neg. + 3 fut.)
To thee will not be false witness to give against thy neighbor.

 

9. Tew nebues charodt touwe tuake namme.
(dat. sg.) (neg. + 3 fut.) (inf.)
To thee will not be to covet thy neighbor's house

 

10. Tew nebues charodt touwe tuake Cewe. Nedse touwe tuake
dat. sg.) (neg. + 3 fut.) (inf.)
To thee will not be to covet thy neighbor's wife. Nor thy neighbor's

 

namme, nedse tirum, nedse  kalpe,  nedse kalpon, nedse winge
house, nor field, nor  man-servant, nor woman servant nor his

 

wersce, nedse lope, nedse wus  kas tam pedarr. 
calf, nor cattle, mor all which to him belongs.

1586 Latvian Protestant Catechism (Vanags 1995: 54-56):

1b. Thoew nhe buus czittes Dewes turreth prexkan man.
(dat.sg.) (neg.) (3 fut.)
To thee not will be other gods to have before me.

 

2b. Thw nhe buus Dewe touwe Kunge Wrde nhe patthese walkoot.
(dat.sg.) (eg.) (3 fut.)
To thee not will be God thy lord name (not) in vain to take.

 

3b. Thw buus tho sweete Dene sweetyt.
(dat.sg.) (3 fut.)
To thee will be the holy day to keep holy.

 

4b. Thw buus touw Thewe vnnde touwe Mathe czenit...
(dat.sg.) (3 fut.) (inf.)
To thee will be thy father and thy mother to honor.../

 

5b. Thw nhe buus nokauth.
(dat.sg.) (neg.) (3 fut.) (inf.) 
To thee not  will be to kill.

 

6b. Thw nhe buus Loulibe paer kaapt.
(dat.sg.) (neg.) (3 fut.) (inf.) 
To thee not  will be marriage to break.

7b. Thw nhe buus Sackt,
(dat.sg.) (neg.) (3 fut.) (inf.) 
To thee not  will be to steal.

8b. Thw nhe buus nhe pathese Ledtczibe doth prettibe touwe Tueake.
(dat.sg.) neg.) (3 fut.)
To thee not  will be false witness to give against thy neighbor.

 

9b. Thw nebuus ekaroth touwe Tueake Namme.
(dat.sg.) (neg. + 3 fut.) (inf.) 
To thee not will be to covet thy neighbor house.

 

10b. Thw nhe buus ekaroht touwe Tuwake Szewe,
(dat. sg.) (neg.) (3 fut.) (inf.)
To thee not will be to covet thy neighbor's wife,

Kalpe, Kalpune, Lope,  yeb  wuesse,  kas tham peder.
man-servant, maid-servant, cattle,  or all,  what to him belongs.

According to Endzelms (1951: 572) the use of the infinitive with the dative is equivalent to the Latvian debitive. He gives the example: bus kungiem kaf igt 'the gentlemen will have to go to war.'

The conclusion is then that whereas Mavydas' Decalogue resembles that of the English religious reformer John Wycliffe, the Old Prussian and the oldest Latvian catechisms do not.

 

* I should like to thank herewith Prof. Haim Rosn of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Dr. Peteris Vanags of Riga, Prof. L. M. Muntingh, Prof. J. M. Claassen, Prof. G. van Wyk Kruger of the University of Stellenbosch, Prof. Dirk Boutkan of the University of Leiden, Prof. Baruch Halpern, Prof. Philip Baldi, Prof. Ronald Buckalew and Prof. Ernst Schrer of the Pennsylvania State University for valuable help and advice with the writing of this paper. I personally am responsible, however, for whatever mistakes and misinterpretations which may remain.

FOOTNOTES

1 According to Luther's 1529 Enchiridion or Small Catechism all of the ten commandments begin with the Du solt (nit), thus (pp. 243-246 in Luthers Werke):
(1) Du solt nit ander gtter haben.
(2) Du solt den name deines gottes nicht unnutzlich fren.
(3) Du solt den feyrtag heyligen.
(4) Du solt deinen vatter und deine mutter eeren.
(5) Du solt nit tdten.
(6) Du solt nit eebrechen.
(7) Du solt nit stelen.
(8) Du solt nit falsch zeugnis reden wider deinen nechste.
(9) Du solt nit begr deines nechsten hausz.
(10) Du solt nit begr deines nechsten weyb, knecht, magd vihe oder was sein jst.
This was similarly expressed in the large Catechism (Der grosse Katchismus, see Luthers Werke in Auswahl vol. 4, p. 2)
Now it seems, however, that it would have been possible in German to express these commandments with straight negative imperatives as in Polish:
*(1) Habe nit andere gtter.
*(2) Fhre nit den name deines gottes unnutzlich.
*(3) Heilige den feyrtag.
*(4) Ehre deinen vatter und deine mtter.
*(5) Tte nit.
*(6) Brich die Ehe nit.
*(7) Stiehl nit.
*(8) Rede nit falsch zeugnis wider deinen nechsten.
*(9) Begehre nicht deines nechsten hausz.
*(10) Begehre nicht deines nechsten weyb, knecht, magd vihe oder was sein jst.
I supply these forms with asterisks because I have never seen them, although it seems quite possible to me that they may exist somewhere or other.
Bahlmann (1894: 68) presents, however, the following commandments from Eine Tafel des christlichen Lebens (ca. 1480) (with an explanation that the order of the commandments is varied in the Middle Ages):
(1) Hebbet (imperative) gene vremde Gode.
(2) Nempt (imperative) Codes Namen niet ydel. 
(5) Du en salt geen Doetslager syn. 
(7) Du en salt niet stelen.
(6) En doe (imperative) gene Onkuyscheit. 
(8) En doe (imperative) gheen valsch Tuech. 
(10) En begheer (imperative) Nymants Bedgenoet. 
(10) En begheer (imperative) Nymants Guet.
(3) Vyre (imperative) die billigen Dage.
(4) Ere (imperative) dyne Olderen.
The language seems to be either an eastern-colored Middle Dutch or Middle Low German according to Prof. Dirk Boutkan of the University of Leiden.
Geffcken (1855) assembled 27 15th century catechetical writings in various languages, primarily Germanic dialects, but also other languages, and in the majority of these the negative commandments are expressed with the 'Du solt nit...' formula. Exceptions include: (2) Den namen gotes nym (imperative) nicht unnotczlichen yn deinen muth (Heidelberger Bilderhandschrift in Geffcken 1855: 4); (2) Nit gebrauch (imperative) eitel den namen deines gots (Der Spiegel des Snders, ca. 1470, in Geffcken 1855: 54); (1) Hebbe (imperative) god leff bouen alle dink, (5) Sla (imperative) nemande doet, (6) Wes (imperative) nyn unkuscher, (7) Steel (imperative) nicht, (9) Beghere (imperative) nenes anderen echte vrowen effte [esste?] man (Speygel der leyen [Lbeck 1496] in Geffcken 1855:148).

2 Schwyzer (1966: 291) notes that the Greek simple future tense has a modal as well as a temporal aspect and gives some examples of the imperative use from the classical language. Similarly Humbert (1954: 152) who gives the example from Plato's Protagoras: hos on poiesete kai peisesth moi 'Act then thus and believe me.' See also Burton (1930: 35) and Blass and Debrunner (1961:183).

3 There might be some objection to this particular transliteration scheme of the Hebrew text, see Pardee (1997: 70-71). On the other hand since I am not a Semiticist, I would hesitate to transcribe the Hebrew myself and in fact the transcription is unimportant with regard to the purposes of this paper which concentrates on Mavydas' rendering of the Decalogue, rather than the phonological characteristics of early Hebrew.

4 It is interesting to note that Tyndale in his 1530 translation of the Pentateuch used the Thou shalt (not) formula, see the 1967 edition, pp. 224-225 and 542-543. Tyndale does not seem to have been significantly influenced by Wycliffe.
On the other hand the Old English version also shows negative imperatives for some of the commandments. Note from Exodus (see Crawford 1922: 262):
1. Ne wyrc ðu ðe agrafene godas...
    'Do not make graven images (gods)...'
2. Ne nemne ðu Drihtnes nam <n> on idel...
5. Ne sleh ðu.
6. Ne synga ðu.
7. Ne stel ðu.
8. Ne beo ðu on laesre gewitnesse [ne] ongean ðinne nextan.
9. Ne wilna ðu ðines nextan huses, ne ðu his wifes, ne his weales, ne his wylne, ne his oxan, ne his assan, ne nan ðra ðinga þe his synd.

From Deuteronomy (see Crawford 1922: 340-341):
1. Nafa ðu fremde godas beforan me.
2. Ne nemne ge Drihtnes naman on idel...
5. Ne beo ðu manslaga.
6. Ne unrihthme ðu.
7. Ne stel ðu.
8. Ne sege ðu lease gewitnessa.
9. Ne gyrn ðu ðines nextan wifes, ne his huses, ne his lands, ne nan ðra ðinga þe his beo.

The Old English use of the negative imperative may be connected with the fact that there was only a two-term contrast in the verbal form, a past and a non-past. The 'non-past serves for durative and non-durative present and future reference' (Strang 1970: 311). Therefore there was no simple morphological way to distinguish the present from the future tense in Old English.

REFERENCES

Bahlmann, P. 1894. Katholische Katechismen bis zum Ende des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts. Mit einer Beilage: Tafel des christlichen Lebens (ca. 1480). Mnster. Druck und Verlag der Regensbergschen Buchhandlung.
Biblia Hebraica transcripta, ed. by Wolfgang Richter. Mnchener Universittsschriften. Arbeiten zu Text und Sprache im Alten Testament 33.2 Band (Exodus, Leviticus). 1991a. EOS Verlag St. Ottilien.
Biblia Hebraica transcripta, ed. by Wolfgang Richter. Mnchener Universittsschriften. Arbeiten zu Text und Sprache im Alten Testament 33.3 Band (Numeri, Deuteronomium). 1991b. EOS Verlag St. Ottilien.
Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis Sixti V Pont. Max. iussu recognita et Clementis VIII auctoritate edita P. Michael Hetzenauer. 1922. Rastibonae et Romae. Sumptibus et typis Friderici Pustet.
Blass, F. and A. Debrunner. 1961. A Greek grammar of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. Translated by Robert W. Funk. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. 
Brockelmann, Carl. 1913. Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der semitischen Sprachen. Vol. 2, Syntax. Berlin, Verlag von Reuther & Reichard. 
Burton, Ernest D. 1930. Syntax of the moods and tenses in New Testament Greek. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. 
Catechismus Catholicorum = Latyskij katexizisъ 1585 goda, pereizdannyj È. A. Vol'terormъ = Sbornikъ russkago jazyka slovesnosti imperatorskoj akademii naukъ Vol. 44, No. 2 (1915). Petrogradъ
Crawford, S. J. ed. 1922. The Old English version of the Heptateuch: Aelfric's treatise on the Old and New Testament and his prefaceto Genesis. London, New York, Toronto, Oxford University Press. 
Endzelns, Jnis. 1951. Latvieu valodas gramatika. Rga, Latvijas valsts izdevniecba. 
Ford, Gordon Buell. 1971. The old Lithuanian catechism of Martynas Mavydas (1547). Assen, Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V. Frick, David A. 1989. Polish sacred philology in the reformation and the counter-reformation: Chapters in the history of the controversies (1551-1632) = University of California publications. Modern philology 123. Berkeley, University of California Press. 
Geffcken, Johannes. 1855. Der Bildercatechismus des fnfzehnten Jahrhunderts und die catechetischen Hauptstcke in dieser Zeit bis auf Luther. Leipzig, T. O. Weigel. The Siebenundzwanzig Beilagen following the main text are paginated separately. 
Humbert, Jean. 1954. Syntaxe grecque. Paris, Librairie C. Klincksieck. 
Kanizijs, Peters. Catechismus Catholicorum... Vilne, Pille.. 1585 -Facsimile Sbornik 94,2 [1915]. 
Kohlenberger - see The NIV Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. 
Loserth, Johann. 1884. Wiclif and Hus. English translation by M. J. Evans. London, Hodder and Stoughton. 
Luther, D. Martin. 1529. [Enchiridion.] Der kleine Catechismus fr die gemeine Pfarrherr und Prediger. In D. Martin Luthers Werke: kritische Gesamtausgabe. Vol. 30, Part 1. (1910) Weimar, Hermann Bhlaus Nachfolger. 
Luthers Werke in Auswahl, ed. by Otto Clemen. 1959. Vol. 4. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter & Co.
Maiulis, V. 1981. Prs kalbos paminklai. Vilnius, Mokslas. 
Mustanoja, Tauno F. 1960. A Middle English syntax. Part 1. Parts of speech. = Mmoires de la socit nophilologique de Helsinki, XXIII.
The NIV Interlinear Hebrew-English Old Testament. 1987. ed. by John R. Kohlenberger III. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Zondervan Publishing House. 
Pardee, Dennis. 1997. Review of Wolfgang Richter's Biblia Hebraica transcripta. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 56.70-71.
Richter - see Biblia Hebraica transcripta.
Rosen, Haim. 1984. East and West: Selected writings in linguistics. Part two: Hebrew and Semitic linguistics. Munich, Wilhelm Fink Verlag.
1997. The lexical Semitisms of Septuagint Greek as a reflex of the history of the Hebrew vocabulary: Implications concerning lexical diachrony and historical lexicography. Pp. 301-318 in Historical, Indo-European, and Lexicographical Studies: A Festschrift for Ladislav Zgusta on the occcasion of his 70-th birthday. Ed. by Hans Henrich Hock. Berlin, New York, Mouton de Gruyter. 
Respond, Stanislaw. 1948. Druki mazurskie XVI w. (Mazurian printings of the 16-th century). Olsztyn, Wydawnictwo Instytutu mazurskiego. Septuagint - see Vetus Testamentum Graece. 
Sbornik otdelenija russkago jazyka i slovesnosti imperatorskoj akademii nauk. Sanktpeterburg. Schwyzer, Eduard. 1966. Griechische Grammatik. Vol. 2. Syntax und syntaktische Stilistik. Vervollstndigt und herausgegeben von Albert Debrunner. Munich, C. H. Beck. 
Simmons, Thomas Frederick and Nolloth, Henry Edward, eds. 1901. The Lay Folks' Catechism or the English and Latin versions of Archbishop Thoresby's Instruction for the People; together with a Wycliffite adaptation of the same, and the corresponding canons of the Council of Lambeth. With Introduction, Notes, Glossary, and Index. London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trbner. 
Stang, Christian S. 1929. Die Sprache des litauischen Katechismus von Mavydas. Oslo, I kommisjon hos Jacob Dywad. 
Strang, Barbara. 1970. A history of English. London, Methuen & Co. 
Tyndale, William. 1530. Five books of Moses called the Pentateuch. Ed. by F. F. Bruce. 1967. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press. 
Vanags, Peteris. 1995. Baltu filologija 5.52-62. 
Vetus Testamentum graece iuxta LXX interpretes, ed. by Valentinus Loch, 1866. Ratisbonae, Typis ac sumptibus Georgu Josephi Manz.
Vulgate - see Biblia Sacra Vulgatae Editionis Sixti V Pont. Max.
Vol'ter - see Catechismus Catholicorum.
Zinkeviius, Zigmas. 1988. Lietuvi kalbos istorija: Senj rat kalba. Vol. 3. Vilnius, Mokslas.